Department of Chemistry
General Chemistry Review
a) selenium trioxide
b) chromium(III) fluoride pentahydrate
c) hydrobromic acid
d) actinium(III) sulfite
e) ammonium oxalate
2. Give the formula from the name for each:
3. State the law of multiple proportions: if two elements combine to form more than one compound and the mass of one element is constant, the ratio of the mass of the second element is a simple fraction or whole number.
State the law of definite proportions: in a compound, the ratio of the masses is constant for any sample.
4. Given the following equation:
a) balance the equation: 4 Al2O3 + 9 Fe g 3 Fe3O4 + 8 Al
b) describe the type of reaction metal displacement
c) determine the Fe:Al2O3 mole ratio 9:4
5. How would you prepare 75 mL of a 0.56 M solution of Ba(NO3)2
(0.075 L)(0.56 M) = 0.042 mol Ba(NO3)2
(0.042 mol) (261.3 g mol-1) = 11.0 g Ba(NO3)2
dissolve 11.0 g Ba(NO3)2 in distilled water to a total volume of 75 mL of solution
6. How would you prepare 1.2 L of a 6 M H2SO4
solution if you start with a 18 M H2SO4 solution?
(6 M)(1.2 L)/ (18 M) = 0.4 L
slowly pour 400 mL of 18 M H2SO4 into distilled water, then dilute with distilled water until the total volume of the solution is 1.2 L. Always add acid to water. This reaction is exothermic.
7. Write the electronic configuration for each of the following:
a) Ni - 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d8
b) As - 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p3
c) Li - 1s22s1
d) Rn - 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s24f145d106p6
e) Au - 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s14f145d10
8. Give the number of valence electrons in each of the following:
|a) Cr - 1||b) Al - 3||c) Ti - 2||d) B - 3||e) Mn - 2|
9. Draw an energy level diagram for Cr+2 and describe its magnetic properties.
Cr+2 - 1s22s22p63s23p63d4
10. List the types of quantum numbers, what each of them represent
and the possible values for each. Be specific.
|quantum numbers:||represent:||possible values:|
|n||size of shell||1 to infinity; integers|
|l||shape of subshell||0 to (n-1); integers|
|ml||direction of orbitals||+ l to -l, integers|
|ms||spin of the electron||+ 1/2|
11. Which would have the larger ionization energy, Na or P? Why? Define ionization energy. Ionization energy is the energy needed to remove a single electron from an atom in the gas phase. Phosphorus would have the higher ionization energy, being a smaller atom, the electrons are closer to the nucleus, more energy is needed to remove the electron.
12. Which would be larger in size, C or C - 4? C - 4 Why? more electrons in C - 4, less pull per electron from the nucleus and there is increase electron-electron repulsions.
13. Of the five sets of quantum numbers listed below, 2 of
them are not valid. Circle the two incorrect sets of quantum numbers.
|(4, 2, 0, +1/2)||(4, 4, 0, -1/2)||(5, 2, -2, -1/2)||(8, 7, -6, +1/2)||(4, 1, +2, -1/2)|
14. Draw the Lewis Dot Structure for each of the following:
|a) AsF5||b) SiCl4||c) SO32-||d) AlH4-|
15. Describe the expected angles for PF3. less than the expected 109.5o due to lone pair interactions with the three bonding pairs
16. Describe the bonding in each of the following: (ionic,
polar covalent or covalent)
all are polar covalent
17. For each of the following, give the electron arrangement
(E.A.) and the molecular geometry (M.G.).
|b) BrF3||trigonal bipyramidal||t-shaped|
|c) AsI3||Td||trigonal pyramidal|
|d) SO2||trigonal planar||bent|
|e) BrF4-||Oh||square planar|
18. Describe the bonding in CO2. Include a
diagram showing orbital overlap.
2 s bonds, 2 p bonds
19. Given two molecules, Br2 and F2,
which has the higher boiling point? Why?
Br2 has the higher boiling point - larger molecule is more polarizable, greater London Forces means more energy is needed to separate the Br2 molecules and convert the liquid into the gas phase.
20. Write the equilibrium expression for each of the following: Where possible, express both Kc and Kp. (Assume each of these are equilibria equations)
a) 2 NaN3 (s) g 2 Na (s) + 3 N2 (g)
Kc = [N2]3 ; Kp = PN23
b) 4 NH3 (g) + 5 O2 (g) g 4 NO (g) + 6 H2O (g)
Kc = [NO]4[H2O]6 /[NH3]4[O2]5 ; Kp = PNO4PH2O6/PNH34PO25
21. According to Le Chatelier's Principle,
a) what effect would the addition of Cl- have on the equilibrium below?
CoCl2 + 2 Cl-
shift to the right
b) what effect would the addition of Ag+ have on the equilibrium in problem 21a if the Ag+ precipitates as AgCl? shift to the left
22. Calculate the pH of a 0.002 M NaOH solution.
pOH = - log[OH-]; pOH = 2.7
pH = 14 - pOH; pH = 11.3
23. For each pair of acids, circle the strongest one.
24. For the following salts, define the resulting solutions as either acidic, basic or neutral.
a) NH4Br acidic
b) Na2SO4 neutral
c) KF basic
d) sodium acetate basic
e) CaCl2 neutral
25. Calculate the equilibrium concentrations of a 0.2 M HF solution. Ka = 7.1 x 10-4
Ka = [H+][F-]/[HF]
= x2/0.2 = 7.1 x 10-4
solve for x; x = 1.2 x 10-2
[H+] = x = 1.2 x 10-2
[F-] = x = 1.2 x 10-2
[HF] = 0.2 - x = 0.2 - 1.2 x 10-2 = 1.88 x 10-1
26. Define a basic oxide: forms a basic solution when placed in water; acidic oxide:forms an acidic solution when placed in water; and an amphoteric oxide: behaves as either an acid or a base, depending on the reaction conditions.
27. Write the Ksp expression for each of the following:
a) AgCl (s) g Ag+(aq) + Cl- (aq)
Ksp = [Ag+][Cl-]
b) Ag2CO3 (s) g 2 Ag + (aq) + CO32- (aq)
Ksp = [Ag+]2[CO32-]
28. Given the Ksp = 2.4 x 10-4 for PbCl2, determine if a precipitate will occur from mixing 0.5 L of 0.02 M NaCl solution with 0.5 L 0.02 M Pb(NO3)2 solution.
Q = [Pb+2]o[Cl-]o2
[Cl-]o = (0.5 L)(0.02 M)/ 1 L = 0.01; [Pb+2]o = (0.5 L)(0.02 M)/ 1 L = 0.01
Q = 1.0 x 10-6 ; Ksp > Q, no precipitate will form
29. Determine the Ksp for Ag2SO4
if the molar solubility is 1.5 x 10-2 M.
Ag2SO4 (s) g 2 Ag + (aq) + SO42- (aq)
x = 1.5 x 10-2
Ksp = [Ag+]2[SO42-]
= (2x)2(x) = 1.35 x 10-5
30. Fill in the blanks.
List the Group V cations Ba+2, Ca+2, Mg+2
Reagent used to precipitate Group III cations hydroxide ions
Reagent used to precipitate Group I cations chloride ions
31. Write the equation that relates DGo with the equilibrium constant K. Which way does the equilibrium lie if K < 1?
DGo = - RT lnK; reactants are favored
32. Determine the E for the Co+2/Co and Pb+2/Pb half-cells if the [Co+2] = 0.50 M and the [Pb+2] = 0.25 M.
Ecell = Eocell
- 0.0591/ n (logQ) = 0.14 V
Q = [Co+2]/[Pb+2]
Pb+2 + Co
Co+2 + Pb; 2 e- process; n = 2
|Co ----> Co+2||+0.28 V|
|Pb+2 ----> Pb||-0.13 V|
33. Will I2 react with Pb? Explain.
If it does react, what is (are) the product(s)? Give the balanced
equation. yes, Pb is above and to the right
in the standard reduction tables.
Pb (s) + I2 (aq) g PbI2 (s)
34. Write the solubility rules.
1. Group IA, NH4+ - soluble
2. NO3-, ClO3-, ClO4- - soluble
3. OH- - insoluble except Group IA, NH4+, Ba+2, Ca+2 (ss)
4. Cl-, Br-, I- - soluble except Pb+2, Ag+, Hg2+2
5. CO32-, PO43-, S2- - insoluble except Group IA, NH4+
6. SO42- - soluble except Ba+2, Pb+2, Hg+2; slightly soluble: Ag+, Ca+2
35. What are VSEPR rules and why are they important? VSEPR sets priorities for the placement of electron pairs around a central atom. These rules allow for the prediction of the correct molecular geometry for a molecule based on its Lewis Dot Structure.
36. Define an Arrhenius acid/ base, Bronsted-Lowry Acid/ base
and a Lewis acid/ base.
Arrhenius acid: contains H and donates H+ when placed in water; Arrhenius base: contains OH and donates OH- when placed in water
Bronsted-Lowry acid: donates H+; Bronsted-Lowry base: accepts H+
Lewis acid: electron pair acceptor; Lewis base: electron pair donor
37. What is Ksp and what information does it give? solubility product, it tells how soluble a solid compound is. The smaller the number, the lower the solubility (generally)
38. What is Ka and pKa? What does the magnitude of the numbers tell us? Ka - Acid dissociation constant and pKa = -log Ka. The smaller the Ka, the weaker the acid. The larger the pKa, the weaker the acid.